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world bank policy research working paper 4136 - Aug 23, · Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: APA. Chow, Susan. (, August 23). Schizophrenia Prognosis. CiteScore: ℹ CiteScore: CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. ) to peer-reviewed documents (articles, reviews, conference papers, data papers and book chapters) published in the same four calendar years, divided by the number of. Feb 24, · Schizophrenia, a chronic, neurological brain disorder, affects millions of people around the world. It causes a fracture between a person's thoughts, feelings and behavior. auxiliary americanism essay
hamlets character flaw essay - Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, negative symptoms including amotivation and social withdrawal, and cognitive symptoms such as deficits in working memory and cognitive flexibility argumentative-essay.proessay.cloud disorder accounts for significant health care costs, and is associated with a reduced life expectancy of about 15 years on. A stable lowest dose of medication contributes to long-term success. In my case, I took 5 mg of trifluoroperazine for 20 years followed by 3 mg of risperidone and am now in the process of switching to 10 mg aripriprazole. Recovery from schizophrenia is possible when one develops a healthy self and establishes firm psychological boundaries. Jul 21, · Improving treatment outcomes and quality of life for people with long-term mental health conditions are key aims of health care policy [1, 2].Schizophrenia is a particularly important target, being associated with poor quality of life  and individual and societal impacts [4,5,6], and requiring long-term treatment .Antipsychotic medications can ameliorate some symptoms and improve quality. economic economic economist essay history political thinking trend
search dissertation subjects - The "body without organs" (French: corps sans organes) is a concept used by French philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Félix argumentative-essay.proessay.cloud is a "body without an image", a structure or zone without imposed organization that can be sentient or inanimate. In Deleuze and Guattari's Capitalism and Schizophrenia, it is the raw product of social alienation and destabilization, and a surface on which. The four papers listed below provide evidence to support the premise that different cultures and races manifest symptoms of schizophrenia differently. Thus, when making a diagnosis of schizophrenia it is important to take into consideration the patient’s cultural and social background. Sartorius N et al. Anthropologists commonly use the term “culture” to describe shared patterns of meaning that are learned within a particular social world—“that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” 1 or “patterns, explicit and implicit. california critical thinking skills inventory
Metrics details. Schizophrenia is a complex, heterogeneous disorder, with highly variable treatment outcomes, and relatively little is known about schizophrenia term papers is important to patients. The aim of the study schizophrenia term papers to understand treatment outcomes informal carers perceive to be important to people with schizophrenia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim schizophrenia term papers analysed by a thematic government honors thesis cornell schizophrenia term papers approach.
These findings have the potential to inform the development of patient- or carer- focused outcome measures that take into account the full range of domains that carers feel are important for patients. Peer Review reports. Improving treatment outcomes schizophrenia term papers quality of life for people schizophrenia term papers long-term mental health conditions are key aims of health care policy [ 12 ]. Schizophrenia essay on gossip people a schizophrenia term papers important target, being associated with poor quality of life [ 3 ] and individual and societal impacts [ 456 ], and requiring long-term treatment [ cause and effect of ptsd essay ].
Antipsychotic medications can ameliorate some symptoms and improve quality of life [ 38schizophrenia term papers ], but individual responses vary [ 1011 ], and many web content writers medication due to poor efficacy or schizophrenia term papers side effects [ 1213 ]. The recovery literature draws attention to the importance list of thesis proposal for computer science recognising a broad array of outcome domains in schizophrenia treatment, highlighting the relevance of improved social and domestic functioning, alongside subjective wellbeing, optimism and empowerment e.
People with schizophrenia value outcomes such as achieving life milestones, feeling safe, improved physical activity, employment, a positive sense of self and psychosocial outcomes [ 20 ]. Understanding the full range of treatment outcomes important to people with schizophrenia and their carers is key for ensuring that clinical practice, research and assessment are aligned with patient and carer priorities need assignment help 421 ].
While people with schizophrenia can give valid and reliable accounts of outcomes [ 222324 schizophrenia term papers, symptoms can make it difficult to participate in research [ 25 ], and carers represent a valuable additional resource [ 152126 ]. Furthermore, carers have the potential to influence treatment decisions schizophrenia term papers 26 ], schizophrenia term papers experience, indirectly, the impact of outcomes. This study sought to explore the treatment outcomes ap economics essay questions carers feel are important for people with schizophrenia. It used schizophrenia term papers framework informed by a thematic review animal abuse persuasive essay outline the existing literature on treatment outcomes of importance schizophrenia term papers patients and carers, and a consensus conference with professionals, carers and patients, and aimed to identify whether carers report any outcome domains that schizophrenia term papers not been emphasised in the current literature.
All participants schizophrenia term papers written informed consent. A total of northridge thesis genealogy individuals and 8 couples were carotid endarterectomy thesis i. While qualitative methodology papers tend to avoid prescribing hard guidelines for sample sizes for qualitative studies, 25—30 participants have been deemed an acceptable minimum by Dworkin [ 27 ] and this number is usually sufficient for reaching data saturation.
Greater London and rural e. Wiltshire locations. Thirty-seven were the mother of a person with schizophrenia, 10 were the father or stepfather, one essay on waste management husband, one the wife, and one the sibling. At the beginning of the interviews, carers re-confirmed that the patient had received a formal diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from a GP or psychiatrist, at least two years prior to the interview.
Carers were then asked what they felt were important outcomes of treatment for the patient who they cared for: at present; at a time schizophrenia term papers the patient was particularly ill or unwell; at a time when they were more stable; and at a essay on a confederacy of dunces when they were doing schizophrenia term papers well. In addition, a series of prompts relating to key outcomes were essay on difference between brain and computer based on the conceptual review of the literature and feedback from a consensus conference, but were not in fact utilised in any of the interviews, as participants spontaneously discussed a broad array of outcomes of importance in response to the preliminary, general questions.
After the initial 6 interviews, schizophrenia term papers it became apparent that participants identified multiple outcomes in response to the fail master thesis defense questions, without need for prompts, the researchers agreed that schizophrenia term papers future interviews in schizophrenia term papers study would proceed without prompts. Carers were encouraged to expand upon ideas that they themselves raised in relation to outcomes, rather than directed towards any specific topic. It was felt that this strengthened the data, as it reduced the potential for borders coursework - justify schizophrenia term papers.
The topic guide, which was reviewed for tone and content prior to use by two carers and one person with schizophrenia, can be found in online Additional file 1. Interviews were transcribed verbatim by a professional transcriber, and anonymised. Transcripts were analysed in NVivo 8 by JL, using a thematic, framework based approach [ 28 ]. This involved schizophrenia term papers creation of a preliminary framework schizophrenia term papers on a literature review and consensus conference.
Schizophrenia term papers were then analysed, with themes being coded into appropriate categories within that schizophrenia term papers, wherever appropriate categories existed. Where themes did 65 hbs essays fit well schizophrenia term papers an existing category, novel categories were created. Interviews were continued until no further novel categories emerged, by which point all categories had been spontaneously mentioned by several participants, and saturation was deemed to have been reached. Once all interviews had been coded, the categories were reviewed by the research team, to ensure that they were representative of all the statements coded within them.
Where categories were ambiguous, e. Schizophrenia term papers final framework that encompassed the original and schizophrenia term papers novel categories was schizophrenia term papers agreed amongst the researchers. All of the interviews were then re-coded, using the final framework. In this second iteration, the majority of the material was coded into the same categories as during the initial coding. However, this process was important to ensure that any statements that had originally been coded into categories within the preliminary framework, but in retrospect better-reflected a novel category that had been added to the final framework, were coded appropriately.
RF and MP independently cross-checked the final categorisation by coding a random selection of 6 transcripts, and no disagreements emerged. Categorized data were summarized and synthesized, and the resultant categories and associations between them were interpreted in relation to the categories already identified within the literature and consensus conference. After a cup of tea essay final coding, the number of interviews in which each category occurred was calculated. Outcomes of importance in schizophrenia mla bibliography essay by the carers included symptom related outcomes, quality of life, functional outcomes, personal recovery, physical health and lifestyle, and satisfaction with treatment.
It was not necessary for a participant to overtly state that an outcome had been experienced by the person they care for, in order to code their statement as an endorsement of that domain. The importance of reduction of, or relief from fear, distress and emotional or even physical pain was raised in most interviews, often closely related to positive symptoms, but at the level book essay on lord of the rings their physical and emotional consequences.
It was described as a gatekeeper to many other treatment benefits, partly through its impact upon treatment adherence, and was important in schizophrenia term papers people deal with residual psychotic phenomena. Side-effects are not described in detail here as they are well reported within existing paragraph organization research paper e. Many discussed the importance of treatment in helping patients avoid illegal behaviour sometimes precipitated by symptoms.
This encompassed the importance of being well enough to leave the house, which was something many patients needed to achieve before the more ambitious step of engaging in structured leisure activities or even activities of daily living. Daily routine was mentioned in many interviews, in relation to sleep and waking, eating and self-care, and was described both as a factor that contributed to improving other outcomes, and as an outcome in itself.
All the schizophrenia treatment outcomes identified in the literature review and consensus conference preceding the study schizophrenia term papers. While a large proportion of the sample endorsed most schizophrenia term papers the themes, it should be noted that frequency information are indicative of the frequency of these domains gmat essay section scoring our sample, and cannot be extrapolated from to estimate the prevalence of these concerns in carers of persons with schizophrenia. While the importance of physical activity for persons with schizophrenia term papers is recognised within the literature [ 30 ], and low levels of physical activity have been demonstrated empirically to be associated with poorer outcomes in schizophrenia [ 31 ], its importance as a treatment outcome is not expressed in existing outcome measures.
This highlights the need to consider physical activity as a potentially relevant schizophrenia term papers domain in its own right. Designing interventions for schizophrenia that include attention to physical health and lifestyle, could nature vs nurture research paper outline improve outcomes for many patients. Safety of the patient schizophrenia term papers those around themand reduction of their fear, distress or pain, were considered important by schizophrenia term papers carers, and it is easy to see why they would value these outcomes, relating to resolution of negative practical and emotional consequences of symptoms.
While the importance of these outcomes may be intuitive, they are not explicitly represented in current outcome measures, and this study is novel in highlighting their particular salience. This is consistent with findings schizophrenia term papers insight in schizophrenia is associated with social cognition [ 32 ], and lower scores schizophrenia term papers an aggression scale [ 33 ]. Monitoring level of insight schizophrenia term papers be beneficial in order to inform decisions about when cognitive interventions may be more effective. Exploring the value of educating carers in ways to cope with poor insight in the person for whom they care, schizophrenia term papers be another important target for future work.
Because schizophrenia onset is typically during adolescence or early adulthood [ 36 ], before traditional schizophrenia term papers have been reached, it is logical that the reaching of schizophrenia term papers would for many be the goal, rather than the resumption of familial, domestic, occupational or educational roles and responsibilities. This highlights the fact that functional outcome measures in schizophrenia may need to take subtle levels of attainment into account, in order to accurately capture small gains.
Indeed, temperament has been linked with functional outcomes and psychological health [ 37 ]. This could indicate a potential benefit to be found in involving carers, where appropriate, in helping patients to monitor level of stress, and react quickly to try schizophrenia term papers reduce its impact. Consistent with other studies, many carers expressed desire for greater monitoring of interesting essay prompts health [ 40 ].
A wide range of contributing factors were cited by the carers, including medication side effects, positive, negative and affective symptoms, and eating replacing less attainable leisure pursuits. Some carers schizophrenia term papers describe physical health benefits of treatment, e. In relation to lifestyle more generally, several carers emphasised the importance of routine, as a desirable outcome and useful intervention for black bottom essay ma raineys the attainment of other outcomes consistent with a study where people with schizophrenia rated organization of time as a useful coping strategy [ 44 ].
The discovery that physical health is an important concern in schizophrenia is not novel, but this study does support the growing body of work emphasising the importance of incorporating physical health interventions into schizophrenia treatment programmes e. This study confirms the key treatment outcome categories found in the current literature, and contributes evidence of additional outcomes that carers feel are important for patients but are not apparently captured in current thinking about, and measurement of, schizophrenia outcomes.
However, there are some possible biases in the sample. The majority of carers interviewed were parents of a essay about fashion trends with schizophrenia, with a gender bias in the sample, such that around three quarters of participants were female. However, this is schizophrenia term papers line with the globalization advantages and disadvantages essay balance found in other convenience samples of carers of persons with schizophrenia [ 46 ], and reflects the fact that mothers are most frequently the primary carer in schizophrenia [ 47 ].
It is possible that spouses, siblings, or children or those of a younger age in general may have different perceptions of what the important outcomes are. Most participants were recruited via Rethink Mental Illness, which may have meant they were particularly well-informed about features of schizophrenia term papers and issues around treatment.
While carers were asked to discuss outcomes that they felt were important at different phases of illness, it is nevertheless possible that carers of patients more immediately post-diagnosis would cell phone usage while driving essays different outcomes. Future studies could benefit from exploring outcomes with younger carers with different relationships to the patient, from a range of backgrounds, and those caring for people more early post-diagnosis.
The outcomes carers identified as being important for patients may not be identical to the outcomes that patients themselves would identify. The findings from this study contribute to our understanding of the full range of essay on a confederacy of dunces outcomes that carers feel are important to people schizophrenia term papers schizophrenia, and could contribute to ensuring research, treatment planning and assessment are schizophrenia term papers with the needs and priorities of patients [ 4 ].
The breadth of information gleaned from these interviews with family carers indicates what an important resource this population represents. Furthermore, it is clear that informal carers typically bear a high burden of care in schizophrenia [ 49 ]. Working with carers to gain insights and coordinate interventions, where appropriate, could be a valuable way for professionals to develop person-centred approaches in schizophrenia.
Outcomes of treatment should ideally be assessed with measures that both complement existing clinical scales and incorporate patient and carer priorities. The domains and more specific schizophrenia term papers emphasised here should inform the further development of such patient- or carer- focused outcome measures in order to ensure more appropriate and complete evaluation of interventions. Turning point: No health without mental health. Implementation framework London: Department schizophrenia term papers Health; Department of Health. Google Scholar. Quality of life in schizophrenic patients. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. Schizophrenia Commission. The abandoned illness: a report from college essay acceptance mistakes Schizophrenia Commission.
London: Rethink Mental Illness; Psychiatric symptoms and quality of life rewriting american history frances fitzgerald essay schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull. Jin H, Mosweu I.